Unfortunately, the answer differs pretty dramatically for native properties with "stable" column names and for Content, which (as of Craft 3.7.0) now contain a "suffix" that (in most any other case) is not a concern for developers. More on that in a moment.
For titles, it's as simple as using the .select() method native to the ...
Just to expand on the caveat regarding field suffixes in Craft 3.7+, I asked on Github what the recommended way to include field suffixes in a custom query is. Here's brandonkelly's response:
The easiest way to do it would be to just hardcode the column name in your template. It won’t change between environments or anything.
That said, it does feel kind of ...
I ran into the same issue today with a fairly old project and was able to fix it by rolling back to Composer 1 locally (composer self-update --1), then updating all of the dependencies and reinstalling, then switching back to Composer 2 (composer self-update --2) and running composer install a second time to pick up on any C2-specific changes.