I must say that I don't understand the rationale behind hiding the Settings in production but not the Plugin Store.
The only action you can really do in production is upgrade to a Pro licence if you don't have one already, so this might be the reason but I think the link at the bottom of the page there if you need it.
For me the 'allowAdminChanges' => ...
You can use an event hook for the event Cp::EVENT_REGISTER_CP_NAV_ITEMS to modify the Control Panel navigation – see Control Panel Sections in the documentation. To determine if the site is in devMode, you can use the config service.
Here's a little module that removes the plugin store from the navigation elements unless the site is in dev mode: