I know what the null coalescing operator (??) does. I have an example here with 3 operators and I am unsure what it does?

Here is an example that I came across in a script I am trying to debug:

{% set eventsButtonLabel = event.eventsButtonLabel ??? 'Book Ticket'|t ??? null %}

What is the function of 3 operators?

1 Answer 1


The ??? operator has been dubbed the "empty coalesce" operator. It's similar to the "null coalesce" operator (??), but ignores empty strings ("") and empty arrays ([]) as well.

The empty coalescing operator isn't part of Craft (or Twig) core, which means your site likely has the Empty Coalesce or SEOmatic plugins installed; both of these plugins add this operator to Twig.

If you want to avoid using that non-standard operator, it can be replaced with the |default Twig filter:

{% set eventsButtonLabel = event.eventsButtonLabel|default('Book Ticket'|t) %}

(That last ??? null in your example seems redundant, unless there is a static translation for 'Book Ticket' that is explicitly set to an empty string, and you specifically need the eventsButtonLabel variable to be null if that is the case).

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