1

In Twig, we can do this like this:

craft.entries({
    id: 11,
    relatedTo: 22,
})

But in PHP code, this does not work:

\craft\elements\Entry::find(
            [
                'id' => 11,
                'relatedTo' => 22,
            ],
        )

I think that only way would be loop through array and apply to initial query object each array position as element query method. Or maybe am I wrong?

I checked Craft source code and in file base/Element.php, in method find() there is no param to pass array of element query methods into.

2

The Element::find() method does not take any parameters, it just serves as the factory method for the appropriate element query for the given element type (for example, Entry::find() returns an EntryQuery). You can chain additional methods to the query afterwards:

use craft\elements\Entry;

$query = Entry::find()->id(11)->relatedTo(22);
$results = $query->all();

See Element Queries and Querying Entries for reference.

2

This is because it's a twig feature in Craft. If I remember correctly it's done in the CraftVariable and look something like this under the hood:

use Craft;
use craft\elements\Entry;

$query = Entry::find();
Craft::configure($query, $criteria);
return $query;

Where the $criteria is the "query config".

Edit: Some references for you.

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