Well, things should be going very smoothly from here, so there is pretty surely something not right with your installation.
1) did you make sure to rename the installed file public/htaccess to public/.htaccess? I'm not sure if this is critical to the installer, but it might be.
2) You can look in craft/storage/runtime/logs. There you find craft.log and phperrors.log. Either may hold information to help.
3) It sounds that your database login config is ok, as otherwise the Craft installer would notify about that, but you may not have all the other server requirements in place yet. See: https://craftcms.com/docs/requirements.
For requirements testing, see: Is there a quick way to check a server for Craft's minimum requirements?
4) Getting no response would be quite unusual. It's possible that your Craft installation is faulty -- FTP in general is often not entirely reliable. You could remove, then re-upload and replace the installation. If you do this and can, I'd suggest uploading the zip, then unzipping it on the server. Again, then, don't forget to rename the htaccess to .htaccess.
5) all this presumes you are running on Apache. If Nginx instead, here are two references that should help. I'd go with the first as that's from the Craft team based on what works for others. I use Nginx all the time, as do many others, and it's fine once configured:
What is the recommended Nginx configuration for Craft?
Good fortune then. Again, Craft installs are nearly as effortless as Craft updates, unless there is something wrong in the configuration or preparations.